Electric Vehicle (EV) Frequently Asked Questions
In light of current events affecting the fuel supply in our area, many of Root Electric's customers have expressed interest in purchasing an electric vehicle. As such, we thought it would be helpful to publish the answers to a few of the most commonly asked questions about electric vehicles.
1. What is the best EV out there?
It's difficult to say which vehicle is best, as there are many factors in evaluating EV quality, which include price, battery range, reliability, and power. If there was a single factor that I could give customers that would prove helpful in evaluating the "best" EV, I would say that it would be battery range. The battery range will dictate how far you can drive the car before charging. Drivers of electric vehicles can be susceptible to something called "range anxiety" which is the fear of running out of electric battery power before reaching a destination or the next charging station. This is something that we don't deal with when we drive traditional gasoline or diesel powered vehicles. Since there is a well-established fuel infrastructure for gas and diesel powered cars, drivers don't think as much about range, because they know that they can find fuel somewhere nearby if they found themselves "running on E". Electric vehicles have very limited options for charging stations, and sometimes these stations are few and far between. The owner of an EV with a large battery range will suffer far less anxiety over whether or not they will make it to their destination or to the next charger without their car running out of power.
2. Why are EV's so expensive?
All cars are expensive to own and operate, however, we just spend money on them in different ways. An electric vehicle and gasoline powered car of comparable quality and trim may have as much as a 20% difference in purchase price, with the electric vehicle being more expensive. One thing to keep in mind is that the purchase price of a gasoline vehicle is only part of the ownership equation. Gasoline and diesel powered cars have many more moving parts than an electric car and require significantly more maintenance, especially as they age. The fuel for them can also be very expensive, depending on the performance level of the gas or diesel powered car. An EV on the other hand requires very little maintenance. Most only require periodic adjustments to the wheel alignment and replacement of tires on a regular basis. Service intervals for many EV's don't occur until you are well over 100,000 miles. A typical gas or diesel powered car typically needs to go in for service every 5,000 to 10,000 miles. Fuel is also a constant expense for gasoline powered cars. Even a Toyota Prius can consume as much as $150.00 a month in gasoline if used as a commuter car. A Tesla being driven at a comparable mileage may only cost between $30.00 and $70.00 a month to charge, and unlike the Prius, the Tesla can smoke a Corvette. (On a race track, of course.)
3. Does my house have enough available electricity to charge an EV?
This is a very broad question, but it gets asked frequently. I wish I could say that if your house was built after, say, 1975, it should have enough available electricity to safely and quickly charge your EV. However, I have seen homes built in the 1950s that have plenty of available power to charge an EV, and newly built homes that require a service upgrade (or an increase in service amperage) to charge an EV. The biggest factor that I see that determines whether or not your house can charge an EV without significant modifications is the type of heat that you have. Homes with gas or oil heat tend to have enough electric service capacity left over to charge an electric vehicle. In many cases, homes with electric heat do not have enough available service capacity to charge an electric vehicle. This is because the heat pump and heat coils can take up a significant amount of service capacity to run when the weather gets cold. Please keep in mind that this is merely a "rule of thumb" and cannot be trusted to officially determine whether or not you have enough service capacity to charge an EV. In order to truly determine if your home can safely handle an EV, you should have a licensed electrician perform load calculations on your home to verify.
4. I don't have a garage on my house. Is it safe to install a plug or power connector on the outside of my house?
Installing an outlet or EV charging equipment on the exterior of your house is completely safe. Almost all EV power connectors are NEMA 3R rated. This means that they can withstand wind, rain, snow, and ice without failing. They are not submersible, however, so installing a power connector or EV outlet in a place that can be flooded is not advisable.
Read also about our EV Charging Station installation service.
5. Is an EV really fast enough to beat a Corvette in a drag race?
Oh yeah. Even a "slow" EV is fast enough to out-accelerate most performance cars. This is because electric motors make 100% of their available torque and horsepower the instant they start to turn, whereas gasoline and diesel engines do not start making significant power until they reach a certain RPM.
I hope that you have made it through this recent interruption in fuel delivery safely and without too much inconvenience. If you have any questions about electric vehicles, or how your electrical system needs to be modified to charge one, please do not hesitate to reach out to Root Electric!
6. Five Things to Consider Before Buying an Electric Vehicle
1. The advertised battery range for many electric vehicles is more than the real world range. The advertised range is based on EPA estimates, which can differ from the real-world use of the vehicle. Before purchasing an electric vehicle, know how many miles you drive per day, and speak with current owners of your prospective vehicle to obtain a more realistic battery range.
2. High powered fast chargers, such as the ones found at shopping malls and rest stops will accelerate wear on the battery if used in excess, causing the battery to lose capacity at an accelerated rate. Charging at home using a 120 V or 240 V outlet is the best charging solution for long term battery health.
3. For most owners, a 120 V outlet on a dedicated circuit is sufficient to charge your electric vehicle on a regular basis. However, it can take up to 36 hours to fully charge a battery that has been drained. If you intend to drive over 30 or 40 miles per day, the best solution for home charging is a 240 V outlet or a high power wall connector.
4. Plan carefully when traveling in an electric vehicle during the holidays. The number of available fast charging stations is not sufficient to service all of the electric vehicles currently on the road during the holidays. Fast charging stations can fill up causing long wait times for a charge.
5. When shopping for a new electric vehicle, pay careful attention to the lifespan of the battery and the long-term resale value. Cars with better batteries will have a longer service life and will have a higher resale value when you choose to sell.
If you have any questions about installing a circuit or wall connector for an electric vehicle, please give us a call.
7. Hidden Costs of Owning an EV
- Insurance. Some electric vehicles cost more than others to insure. In most cases the added cost is due to the limited number of body shops currently qualified to work on them. Technology such as advanced cruise control and autopilot also has an effect on insurance costs. Before you sign on the dotted line to buy your first electric vehicle, it might be a good idea to contact your insurance carrier for a quote.
- Tires. The electric motors on electric vehicles generate 100% of their torque and horsepower at ZERO RPM’s. This means, if the motor in your new EV is rated at 300 horsepower, it makes all 300 horsepower as soon as you touch the accelerator. Traditional gasoline or diesel cars make a small amount of power at low RPM’s (where people drive most frequently) and do not generate their maximum output until higher RPM’s (which might only be seen when accelerating or merging onto the interstate). This difference in horsepower at low RPM’s makes electric vehicles accelerate much faster than gas or diesel cars. There are also other factors at play, such as the forces generated by increased curb weight and regenerative braking. All of these combined effects create more wear on the tires.
- Taxes. Most states use tax revenue from gasoline sales to pay for road maintenance. As electric vehicles have become more popular, some states have begun to charge a special surcharge on top of standard registration fees for electric vehicles to make up for lost tax revenue. The cost can range anywhere from $50.00 to $200.00 depending on which state you live in.
- Electricity. While calculating the total cost of ownership for an EV, most people figure in savings in gas or diesel. Remember to check your power company’s cost per kilowatt/hour to calculate the increase in your electric bill. Be sure to subtract this projected monthly cost in electricity from any fuel savings that you had calculated into your budget.
- Installation. While many EV owners can get by with simply plugging their new car into an existing 120 volt wall outlet, most owners will quickly find that they need a larger circuit to charge the car quickly enough for daily usage. A 15 or 20 amp, 120 volt wall outlet can charge an EV battery from near empty to full in 24 to 36 hours, but a 30 to 60 amp, 240 volt outlet can charge the same battery in as little as three or four hours. If you use a significant portion of your battery’s power in a day, it will be worth the expense to hire an electrician to install a 240 volt circuit. There are many factors in determining what circuit size is best for your car, but for the purposes of this article, it is best to first talk with an electrician to determine potential costs of installing a new charging circuit.
8. How to Get The Most Out of Your Electric Vehicle’s Range
- Get the big battery. When buying your new electric car, first look at the battery options. Spend the extra money to buy the model with the greatest available range. Depending on your budget, it may seem like a large pill to swallow for a premium battery, but the convenience of not having to charge frequently on long trips or in your daily routine will make up for the added cost.
- Use heat sparingly. Traditional gasoline or diesel powered car generate a tremendous amount of heat as a result of the combustion process and internal friction of traditional car engines. To heat your car during the winter, the HVAC system uses coolant from the engine to radiate heat into the car. Because of this, heating the cabin of an internal combustion car has no effect on gas mileage. Electric vehicles generate very little heat because of their simplicity and lack of combustion. As a result, electric vehicles must employ either a heat pump or resistance heat (think about the heating elements inside a toaster) to make the cabin comfortable on cold mornings. Because it takes extra battery energy to run the heat pump or resistance heater, manufacturers such as Tesla recommend limiting use of the central HVAC system and instead turning up the seat heaters to keep you comfortable.
- Avoid hard acceleration. This one almost goes without saying since the same rule applies to gasoline and diesel cars. There is an added component to electric vehicles though since they are known for unusually strong acceleration. Sometimes the temptation to “pull some G’s” at a stop light or entering the interstate can be fun, but it will drain your battery more quickly if you do it too frequently.
- Keep your tires properly inflated. As with the last rule, keeping up with your tires also applies to traditional cars, but again, with electric vehicles there is a difference. Many people have their tire pressure checked and adjusted when they bring their gasoline or diesel car in for regular oil changes and maintenance. Most electric vehicles do not require regular oil changes, and service intervals for wear items like brakes might be over 100,000 miles. Since your car isn’t being checked over by professionals as frequently, make sure to make a habit of checking your tire pressure on a weekly or monthly basis. Properly inflated tires give gasoline or diesel cars good gas mileage, and they will also help conserve your battery.
- Keep your junk out of the trunk. I am guilty of this myself. I put something in the trunk that I intend to use in the near future, but never take it out of the trunk when I am finished. Remember that if you are carrying 100 to 300 pounds of cargo in the trunk, your motors are using extra electricity to accelerate and cruise. If you aren’t currently using the items in your trunk. Take them out and keep them in the garage. Keeping your car light and lean will preserve its battery range.
- Keep your battery warm during the winter. The temperature of the battery has a large effect on your electric vehicle's range. Cold winter temperatures affect your battery's ability to charge and to discharge. If you park your car outside, leave it plugged in while not in use and follow the owner's manual's recommendations for cold weather storage. If possible, park your car in a garage where the heat from your house will keep the temperature of the battery warmer than it would be if simply parked outside.
9. What is Electric Vehicle Range Anxiety?
EV range anxiety is the fear of driving an electric vehicle and running out of power, without being able to find a charging station on time to replenish the battery.
According to a research, approximately 30 percent of potential EV drivers today feel uncertain about being able to charge their vehicle when they need to.
10. Here is Five Ways to Reduce Electric Vehicle Range Anxiety:
- Buy the biggest battery. When you purchase your new electric vehicle, buy the model with the largest battery that you can afford. The larger the battery, the more range the car will have. Even if the rated range is way more than you think you will need, it will allow extra margin when traveling long distances, and reduce the frequency of charging sessions.
- Set your battery charge indicator to “percent” not “miles remaining.” All electric vehicles have an indicator that gives the driver a readout of the battery’s current state of charge. This display serves the same function as the fuel gauge on a gas or diesel powered vehicle. By setting the gauge to read out the percentage of charge remaining, the driver does not have to constantly be reminded of the declining number of remaining miles before the battery runs out of energy, turning the car into a very expensive brick. Seeing the percent of charge is a more familiar sight to those of us who are accustomed to seeing a needle pointing somewhere between “E” and “F”.
- Make a habit of charging regularly. The ubiquity of gas stations has made drivers complacent in keeping track of the fuel level of their vehicles. Many people simply drive around without looking at the gas gauge until they notice the “low fuel” light blinking. Since EV charging stations are often few and far between, a “low battery” indicator can become a frightening event. To avoid this situation, make a habit of charging your vehicle on a regular basis, and with sufficient energy to drive your anticipated distance with a 20% to 30% margin of error.
- Know where charging stations are located before you travel. When traveling long distances, make sure you know where charging stations are located and how far apart they are. This will eliminate the possibility of finding yourself caught short of energy without a charging station within range. Most electric vehicles have a feature in their navigation that identifies charging stations along the route. These navigation systems will even plan how much to charge at each station to maximize charging time and range. Pro Tip: Try to find charging stations where there is a convenient place to grab a snack and use the bathroom. This makes the 15 minute to 40 minute wait go by faster.
- Always keep your mobile connector in the trunk. Never drive your electric vehicle without a way to connect to electricity. In a pinch, you can always use your mobile connector to plug in where you are located, (with permission of the property owner, of course.)
11. What is The Best Home EV Charger
The best brand wall connector that you can buy is either one that will work with a NEMA 14-50R outlet, or the one made specifically for your car by its manufacturer. Either of these options will give you either the greatest amount of flexibility and future value, or unlock the greatest number of available features that your new electric vehicle has to offer. Read more about the best home ev charger.
12. Why my EV charger gets hot?
During the summer, some customers report their EV outlet or circuit breaker becoming hot. While most electrical components, including those for EVs, can tolerate higher temperatures up to 194°F, there are two main factors that contribute to increased temperatures in the EV charging system: "Voltage Drop" due to A/C units running in high ambient temperatures and direct impacts of higher ambient temperatures on the components. Users should be alarmed if they notice smoke or melting plastic, as these indicate overheating and necessitate contacting an electrician. Typically, excessive heating can be caused by a faulty terminal, which is a relatively inexpensive issue to address if caught early. For any concerns, customers are advised to contact Root Electric.
13. What is PHEV?
PHEV stands for "Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle." These vehicles use a combination of an internal combustion engine (like those in traditional vehicles) and an electric motor. They have a battery that can be charged by plugging into an electric power source, but they can also run on gasoline when the battery is depleted.
14. What is the difference between an EV and a PHEV?
The key difference is that an EV runs purely on electric power, while a PHEV uses both electric power and traditional gasoline. When the battery of a PHEV is depleted, it automatically switches over to its gas engine.
15. What are the benefits of EVs and PHEVs?
Both types of vehicles offer lower tailpipe emissions compared to traditional gasoline-powered vehicles. EVs produce zero emissions, while PHEVs produce lower emissions when running in electric mode. Both can contribute to energy independence as they can run on domestically produced electricity. They may also result in lower fuel costs over time, depending on electricity rates and driving habits.
16. How long does it take to charge an EV or PHEV?
Charging time varies depending on the vehicle's battery size, the power level of the charger, and how depleted the battery is. A typical EV might take anywhere from 1 hour to 12 hours to fully charge, while a PHEV usually takes less time due to its smaller battery size.
17. How far can an EV or PHEV go on a single charge?
The range of an electric vehicle depends on its battery capacity. Most new EVs can travel between 150 and 400 miles on a single charge. PHEVs have a shorter electric-only range, typically around 15 to 50 miles, but they can switch to gasoline power for longer trips.
18. Are EVs and PHEVs more expensive to maintain?
Generally, EVs tend to have lower maintenance costs than conventional vehicles because they have fewer moving parts and don't require oil changes. PHEVs, however, may have maintenance costs comparable to conventional vehicles because they still have a gasoline engine. However, this can vary based on the specific vehicle and usage.
19. Is the infrastructure for EVs and PHEVs widely available?
The availability of charging infrastructure varies greatly by location. In urban areas and along major highways, charging stations are becoming increasingly common. However, in rural or remote areas, charging options may be less plentiful. More infrastructure is being added all the time, and many EV and PHEV owners install home charging equipment.
20. Do EV Chargers Need Maintenance?
Certainly! Just as with any equipment or technological device, regular upkeep for EV chargers is paramount. Here are some of the reasons to do EV charger maintenance:
Peak Efficiency: Consistent maintenance guarantees your charger operates at peak efficiency. This translates to not only quicker and more dependable charging but also judicious use of electricity.
Safety Measures: Chargers subjected to regular use can pose safety threats if left unchecked. Compromised cables or malfunctioning connectors might precipitate accidents or, in dire circumstances, fires.
Enhanced Durability: Even though EV chargers are designed for durability, habitual inspections can extend their operational life. Neglecting trivial issues today can evolve into substantial complications tomorrow, necessitating expensive interventions or replacements.
Economic Advantages: Taking a preventive approach to maintenance allows you to detect and address budding issues before they balloon into larger, cost-intensive challenges.
Assured Reliability: The comfort of knowing that your charger is in optimal shape is invaluable, more so when it's crucial for daily travels or extended journeys.